The rocket lifted off from the Sriharikota space centre carrying two satellites from India and eight from foreign countries.
The subcontinent is hoping to rival the Russian, US and EU space agencies as a launch vehicle for new orbital technology.
"The mission was perfect," said G Madhavan Nair, chairman of the state-run Indian Space Research Organisation.
"It is an historic moment for us because it is the first time that we have launched 10 satellites in a single mission."
One of the Indian satellites is a mapping system that will scan the entire country. It is hoped that the system will be able to view in high enough resolution to identify every house in the land.
The second Indian craft is a technology gathering system, and the other eight are small research devices from Canada, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands.
India began its space programme in 1963 and has been successfully putting satellites into orbit for years.
Other countries such as China are also getting into the space race to build boosters capable of launching satellites and exploring the solar system.
India launches 10 satellites in one go
By Iain Thomson on Apr 30, 2008 3:15PM