5. Mozilla Firefox
Iain Thomson: Cue my Don LaFontaine (the voiceover guy in movie trailers) voice: "In a world where one browser dominated the Internet a new hero was born, and its name was Firefox."
OK, that's over-dramatising a tad but the rise of Firefox was one of the most heart-warming tales of computing, although maybe not if you're working at Microsoft.
Netscape popularised the browser at a time when Bill Gates was still dismissing the Internet as a fad. Having realised that Microsoft had missed the boat, Gates went after Netscape and slashed it off at the knees. It gave away the browser Netscape had been selling, bundling its own browser with Windows and waging an aggressive PR campaign to boot.
The result was that Netscape all but died out and Internet Explorer got 95 per cent of the market. As it now had the monopoly position, Microsoft virtually stopped development work on the browser and users were stuck with an application that was outdated, unsafe and a pain in the backside to use.
Then came Firefox, the open source alternative. By making the browser free Microsoft had unwittingly given open source an ideal opportunity. Firefox was launched by the Mozilla Foundation, which ironically was set up by the remnants of Netscape, and quickly became the browser of choice for the tech cognoscenti.
It didn't do this by throwing money into marketing or leveraging a market position like Microsoft. It did so by being much better than the competition. It introduced concepts like tabbed browsing, pop-up blocking and a customisable user interface.
After years of seeing little or no innovation from Microsoft suddenly it had a competitor and it began updating IE, initially just copying Firefox innovations but then adding a few of its own.
Firefox is a great example of how innovation can prove to be more powerful than money and market clout. While Firefox still has only about 25 per cent of the market, it has done so entirely on its own merits and this makes it one of the most inspiring of IT stories.
Shaun Nichols: According to one source, when marketing the early versions of Internet Explorer to the press and public Microsoft PR agents were told by the higher-ups to "f*** Netscape until it bleeds".
While rather harsh and a bit crude, the phrase does provide an accurate description of how Microsoft went about the browser wars. How satisfying it must be, then, for Netscape's former developers to see the ghost of their old browser come back to haunt Microsoft.
Even more ironic is that Firefox beats Internet Explorer at its own game. Not only is the browser free, but it's open to anyone that wants to look under the hood. Developers do much of the coding free of charge for the betterment of the browser (and perhaps a little bit of wanting to stick it to Microsoft).
4. The rise of Apple
Shaun Nichols: It's the quintessential Silicon Valley success story: two geeks, one a gifted engineer, the other a marketing genius, turn a garage hobby into a business empire.
Everyone knows the story of Apple (check out our Mac at 25: Special Report). Two guys named Steve (Jobs and Wozniak) meet up at the home-brew computer club and put together a model for a powerful, low-cost home computer.
Sold as the Apple I, the company's first computer (in reality it wasn't much more than a motherboard) did pretty well. But it wasn't until Jobs and Wozniak secured some extra funding that things really began to take off.
Woz cooked up a new computer design, then the company decided to add a keyboard, case and storage. The result was the phenomenally successful Apple II, and the rest is history.
While Apple wasn't the first to undertake the journey of garage start-up to industry giant, theirs is probably the most famous, and served as inspiration to a number of later companies that would follow the same path.
Iain Thomson: Like it or loathe it, Apple is one of the most inspiring success stories in the industry. Steve Wozniak was a reclusive genius who, if he'd had his way, would have stayed an engineer in a little cubicle at HP doing great things for little money. Steve Jobs was the brash salesman who knew he was better than anyone else in the industry and set out to prove it.
These chalk-and-cheese characters came together and built something admirable, and kick-started the whole PC industry as well. It was a great example of how two youngsters, with barely a bean to their names, could build an industry on brain, brawn and sheer chutzpah.
Iain Thomson: Out of the smoking ruins of the first Internet bubble rose a company started by a couple of students which became the most powerful brand on the planet.
Google was the brainchild of Larry Page and Sergey Brin, who were researching how to make search engines better. Search engines had become the chief way of navigating the morass of information the Internet was spawning, but they weren't very good.
The Google search engine became what it is today down to one simple fact: it was miles ahead of the competition. It made MSN and Yahoo look pitiful by example. It became a word-of-mouth sensation, drawing in users without advertising because once you used it you were hooked.
The company also topped the list of places to work for a long while. An informal atmosphere prevailed, with lots of in-house facilities like cafes, crèches and at-desk massages to make staff feel more relaxed. The company also set aside time for staff to work on their own projects. The unofficial corporate creed was 'Do no evil'.
Not content with the search market, the company then set up spin-offs like Gmail, which changed web mail services across the board, and Google Earth. It is now the 800 pound gorilla in much of the technology industry.
While its reputation has suffered in recent years, notably from its compliance in censorship with the Chinese authorities, it still remains an example of how a good idea is sometimes all you need.
Shaun Nichols: Google is such a great story because the company emerged as a successful start-up at a time when some people wondered whether a successful start-up was even possible.
Having the advantage of hindsight, the company was able to avoid the pitfalls of many late 1990s dot-com companies, while keeping the good features. The company took care of its employees and created a pleasant working environment, and did not go all-out with lavish benefit packages or super-plush facilities.
Google also did some trailblazing of its own. Things such as community service programmes and the '10 per cent' concept helped foster the idea that there's more to a job than what the boss puts on your desk.
Granted, there are more than a few disgruntled ex-Googlers who would disagree with the idea of the company being a great place to work, while it has recently been forced to cut back on the perks and consolidate its stable of beta projects.
But there's no arguing Google's role in helping bring Silicon Valley back from the dot-com bust and fostering some healthy new ideas about how a company should view its employees.
2. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Shaun Nichols: It's safe to say that Bill Gates was one of the most hated men in technology in the 1990s. The Microsoft chief had earned a reputation as a ruthless opponent who didn't mind breaking the rules to eliminate competitors that often offered superior products.
The result was that Microsoft became the biggest software company in world, and Gates amassed more money than anyone on the planet.
Then, like Andrew Carnegie and John Rockefeller a century ago, Gates decided to give his fortune away. In 1994 he committed hundreds of millions of dollars to charity, and established what would later become the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
After convincing Warren Buffet to hop onboard, the Foundation is now said to boast an endowment of some US$37bn committed to health, education and economic development throughout the world.
Iain Thomson: It's interesting to see what the lords of Silicon Valley do with their loot. Some, like Larry Ellison, waste large amounts on expensive toys. Others, like Mitch Kapor, seek to use it for change. Bill Gates, for so long the richest of them all, decided to give it way.
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation started off with humble beginnings but moved rapidly towards greatness. By getting Warren Buffet to add in his wealth, Gates created a charity powerhouse that is already solving global problems.
It's also been a good thing for Big Bill himself, I can't help feeling. Gates has a sharp mind and loves a challenge. By all accounts he is now bringing this razor intellect to bear on some of the world's most pressing problems - and this will be his legacy. Hopefully, his example will inspire others to make an equal contribution.
Iain Thomson: Linux has become one of the flagships of the free software movement and is, for me, the most inspirational of technological achievements.
Linux is the result of the Masters project Linus Torvalds chose at the University of Helsinki. Torvalds updated Mimex, an open source version of Unix used in the education field, for 32-bit computer architecture, and offered his creation free to the world.
The result was like a blast of nitrous oxide in the engine of the open source movement. Linux may have been more complicated to set up than Windows, but it was a valid alternative and it became more and more common.
Enthusiasts worked night and day to make it better and solve software problems in a way that companies couldn't compete with. Pay someone a day's wage and they'll do a day's work. Get someone enthused with something and they'll work day and night until they drop, then drag themselves up by the eyelids and work some more, just for the love of it.
Linux is still not the easiest operating system to set up, but more and more people are getting into it. It's also noticeable that it's a tool for getting unsociable geeks to communicate. Linux user groups can be found in most cities, and I know of two or three relationships that would not otherwise have come about because of some fine coding work and a shared love of the operating system.
Besides all this, it also has a place in my heart because it comes from Finland, one of my favourite places in the world. While its cuisine isn't up to much, the Finns are admirable in so many ways: plain speaking, community minded and libertarian. Much of that national character is reflected in Linux.
Shaun Nichols: Even though its fans often challenge Apple's in terms of arrogance and annoyance, you have to love Linux.
The Unix kernel first written by Linus Torvalds nearly two decades ago has become the little operating system that could take over the world. Developers and tinkerers love the freedom of the open architecture, while admins love the stability, and executives love the cheap operating costs.
Beyond culture, there's also the significant financial impact. The rise of Linux and its vendors proved that you could do open source and still make a huge profit. Companies like Novell and Red Hat rode Linux into the upper ranks of the tech world and made it among the most robust and respected enterprise operating systems around.
Honorable Mention: SETI@Home and the rise of distributed computing
Shaun Nichols: As the Internet began to boom in the late 1990s, a new sense of connection and co-operation began to take shape. Nowhere was that more apparent than in the SETI at Home project.
The idea was simple enough: take a lot of data normally meant for a supercomputer and break it into smaller chunks that home computers could crunch in their spare time. When researchers at UC Berkeley released the project, it spread like wildfire throughout the geek world.
Since then, the distributed model has moved on to other fields. Users can now participate in distributed projects that do everything from model DNA and proteins, to predict global climate change.
Iain Thomson: The SETI project was a fascinating idea and, like many, I signed up almost immediately. The simplicity was great. It used your computer's downtime to do something useful that would have cost a lot of money on a mainframe system.
As an added bonus there was a chance that you could discover a message from outer space, hopefully not one that read: 'Surrender at once and welcome to your new job in our sugar mines.'
The idea has since been used again and again, and has helped inspire distributed computing projects in business as well as research.
Top 10 most inspiring moments in IT
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